Author Archives: Aisha

The Role of Managing General Agents

Managing General Agents (MGAs) are leaders of the wholesale insurance market place and function as an intermediary managing the relationships among policy holders, retail producers and the insurance carriers. These agents provide underwriting and administrative services and have the authority to accept and appoint placement from retail agents on behalf of the insurers they represent. Generally, MGAs market more unusual coverage, such as professional liability, for which a particular expertise is required. Insurers benefit from MGAs where such expertise is not available within the company and would be costly to develop.

The purpose of MGAs hired by insurance companies is to supervise their business in a particular territory and they are often referred to as wholesalers, but in no way do they compete with brokers and do not deal with customers directly. MGAs have a unique relationship with their carriers. Depending on the relationship, a MGA may perform tasks normally performed by an insurer; which include, handling claims, issuing policies, sub-contracting with independent agents, collecting premiums and negotiating commissions to name a few. As agents of the insurer, they perform the basic insurance functions for the carrier of underwriting and policy issuance.

According to the American Association of Managing General Agents, an MGA can be used in any line of insurance and includes insurers who are “admitted or not, direct or otherwise, broker or agent system, contract/appoint or open-broker sub-production, or any combination of these.” Typically, MGAs are utilized most in the excess and surplus lines insurance market, but are also found in the commercial and personal insurance market.

When thinking about how MGAs work, it’s best to consider traditional insurance market access where it flows from the insurance company to the retail agent and finally to the insurance buyer. Now consider how the surplus lines market access flows. It works in much the same fashion with one major difference. The MGA acts as the intermediate between the insurer and the agent. In this way, market access flows from the insurance company, to the intermediary, the retail/out of state agent and finally to the buyer.

MGAs are generally entitled to a contingency commission on all business written within their territory. They take a percentage of the commission that would usually go to the producing insurance agent. Being an MGA means personal accountability as well as responsibility for producers. MGAs take on the significant costs involved in being a wholesaler and the investment needed to succeed.

Does Your Pool Cue Matter? The Truth About Modern High Technology Pool Cues

I started playing pool at the young age of 7 years old, during the winters growing up in northern Maine when the temperature reached 50 below zero and it was too cold to ski. The rec room at Loring AFB had a couple of pool tables, and as a very athletic kid I had a natural curiosity about the game, and after watching a few games I was invited by one of the airmen to play a game with him. He showed me how to hold the cue stick and make a bridge, and got me a little wooden box to stand on so I could reach the table. It didn’t take long for me to become addicted to the game, and soon invited my friends to play. We spent many a cold winter day inside that rec room, playing for hours, making up our own rules and games, and eventually even betting nickel candy bars on the outcome. Yeah, we were big spenders!

When summer hit, we put the cues away and played baseball all day long. My dream, since I was 5 and saw the Dodgers play in Los Angeles several times before my dad was transferred to Loring, was to be a pro baseball player, and I eventually got a baseball scholarship to college in Texas, where my dad retired in 1966. Through the years, every spare hour not spent practicing baseball was spent in a pool hall, and after my baseball career ended with a torn pitching shoulder, pool became my number 1 interest. I won my first tournament when I was 17, at a bar that my sister worked at, and won a cue stick as first prize. I was thrilled beyond belief, until I screwed the stick together and rolled it across the table. To my horror, it rolled like a corkscrew, being so warped as to be unplayable! Back to playing with a bar stick!

For the next 20 years, I hustled pool where ever I was working at the time. I drilled oil wells all over the country, and made as much money hustling the roughnecks after their shift as I did from my salary. As a mud engineer, I was responsible for checking many different rigs daily, and got to know, and play against, hundreds of different pool players each year. Moving around the country to different areas on a yearly basis, I was able to keep under the radar and remain a relative unknown, so it was never any trouble to get a money game going. I don’t think I ever met a roughneck who didn’t play pool, and most of them had a pretty high opinion of their game. That usually changed when it came time to pay up!

In 1989 I met the Alexander brothers on a golf course in Dallas. Nick, a lawyer, had founded Clicks Billiards many years before, and now had a total of 20 pool halls from Phoenix to Florida, with his original pool hall right there in Dallas at Abrams Rd. and Northwest Highway. Greg, his brother, was the General Manager, and responsible for hiring managers for all 20 of their pool halls. By this time I had retired from the oil business, and made my living on the golf course and pool halls every day. Greg and Nick were both members of Sleepy Hollow Country Club in south Dallas, where I hustled golf every day. Greg was a 3 handicap, and after I had played with him 3 or 4 days a week for several months ( and took quite a bit of money from him), he asked me if I played pool. Heh heh heh. “A little bit”, I said, and he took me that night to the original Clicks Billiards, to try to win a little of his money back.

After he paid up the hundred I beat him out of that night, he offered me a job, as assistant manager of the original Clicks. He knew I had never bar tended before, but assured me I would pick it up quickly, and would fit right in with the pool players who made up their core customer base. Was he ever right! I took to it like a duck to water, and ended up meeting most of the best pool players in Dallas, and some of the best in the country. Clicks had several exhibitions, including one by Grady Matthews, and one by Ewa Mataya, the Striking Viking. Clicks was also where I met CJ Wiley, the road player who won the ESPN Ultimate Nine Ball Challenge in 1995 or 96. There were many, many top notch professional players at Clicks, with many a $1,000 game of one pocket going on day and night, with lots of major Dallas bookies bankrolling a lot of the action, and sweaters on the rail by the dozens, just watching…or praying, lol.

CJ rolled into Clicks in 1990, and proceeded to terrorize the local pros. He was an instant legend, steamrolling every major player in town. Guys who scared the dickens out of me would not even touch CJ when he offered them the 5 and out. His rep grew, and his ranking did too, eventually reaching #4 or 5 in the world of Pool. Working there, I became fast friends with CJ, and when he opened up his own room in Dallas, CJ’s Billiard Palace, I eventually quit Clicks and went over to manage CJ’s place. When he opened up, 90% of the action, and pro players, went with him. He had 12 Gold Crowns, as opposed to the 4 at Clicks, a kitchen, and was open 24 hours. The action never stopped.

So what, you ask, does all this have to do with the title topic? I bought my first cue, a Thomas Wayne model, in 91, and while it was beautiful, with lots of gorgeous inlays, and very responsive, it really did nothing to improve my game. I played with it for 3 years until it was stolen, and I loved the cue, but I could play just as well with a bar cue, providing it was the right weight and had a good tip. I spent 700 dollars for the cue, but I really didn’t need to. It did not give me any advantage over a house cue.

I had a severe back injury in 1994, that made me quit playing golf and pool. I didn’t want to risk an operation, and it wasn’t until 2008 that I got some non-narcotic medication from the V.A. that let me bend over the table again without excruciating pain. By this time, Predator Cues had come out with a 10 piece shaft that was hollow at the tip, significantly reducing cue ball deflection at impact…or so they claimed. Having been away from the game for 14 years, I had read little about these cues, and was intrigued, to say the least.

For those of you reading this who don’t know what cue ball deflection is, here it is in a nut shell: When a cue ball is struck to either side of the vertical axis…the center line….the cue ball will deflect, or “squirt” in the opposite direction. So if you hit the cue ball using right ‘english’…hitting the cue ball right of the vertical center line…the cue ball will deflect to the left, and vice versa.. The amount of deflection varies, depending on speed of the stroke, the distance from the center line (or tip offset) the cue ball is struck, and the mass of the tip. In other words, the more english you apply, the harder the stroke, and the bigger the mass of the tip…..these factors will all increase the amount of deflection, or squirt. This squirt must be compensated for when aiming, or you will miss the shot quite often.

This is where the Predator technology comes into play. With a small hollow space at the end of the tip, the reduced mass drastically reduced the amount of deflection by allowing the cue ball to push the shaft out of the way at impact, instead of the shaft pushing the cue ball out of the way. The 314 shaft became very popular immediately with professionals, and the Z shaft reduced deflection even more by reducing the tip size from 12.75mm to 11.75mm. A shorter ferrule also helped reduce mass, and therefore reduce deflection even more. Independent testing has the Z² shaft and the 314² shaft from Predator as being the #1 and #2 shafts in the world in causing the least amount of deflection. Predator cues and shafts are used by over half of the top 40 professionals, 3 of the top 5 women professionals, and over 35,000 players worldwide, according to the Predator web site. These professionals are not paid to play these cues. They play them because their living depends on their playing ability, which is enhanced with this high-tech equipment.

Since Predator led the way in the mid 90’s, many companies have now joined the technology revolution. Lucasi Hybrid Cues offers the Zero Flex Point shaft on all their hybrid models. This shaft has technology similar to the Predator shafts to drastically reduce deflection. They offer these shafts with many joint types to fit most cues made today. World Champion Thorsten Hohmann from Germany now plays Lucasi Hybrid.

The OB-1 and OB-2 shafts also offer low deflection technology, and John Schmidt recently changed to the OB cue. He said he ran over 400 balls playing straight pool, the second day he used the OB shaft.

I had to try out one of these cues myself, and I must say: I love the new high-tech pool cues. I play with a Predator 5K3, and despite not having played in 14 years, my game has ascended to a level way higher than I ever played before. The reduced deflection makes the hard shots using english much simpler, by reducing the amount of compensation for squirt.

In summation, the advance of technology has shortened the learning curve for beginning and intermediate players by reducing cue ball deflection, and requiring much less compensation for the squirt effect. And the pros, who make their living with a cue? Nearly all of them play a low-deflection shaft of some kind. Why wouldn’t they? If they don’t, their competitors (who all do) will take the money.

While Predator remains the benchmark for low deflection, they are also not cheap. The retail price for a Z² shaft is nearly $300, but the new Lucasi Hybrid Cues, with similar technology (and also new grip technology to reduce impact vibration) are a good lower priced alternative. For less than the price of a Predator Z² shaft alone, your can get an outstanding Lucasi Hybrid [http://www.poolsharkcues.com/product_info.php?cPath=6&products_id=78/] that has advanced low-deflection technology and plays fantastically well. If a World Champion like Thorsten Hohmann is playing a Lucasi Hybrid, you KNOW it is an outstanding cue.

So think long and hard when purchasing a new cue stick. If you don’t use a cue with modern low-deflection technology, chances are your opponent will be. Everything else being equal, a modern low-deflection cue, or an older cue with a new low-deflection shaft, is going to win the vast majority of the time. Greatly improved accuracy will make it so.

Managerial Economics – Application of Economic Theory in Solving Business Problems!

Managerial economics is concerned with various micro and macro economic tools and the analysis of which can be used in managerial decision making to solve business problems. Micro economic tools that are used in this subject include demand analysis, production and cost analysis, break-even analysis, pricing theory and practice, technical progress, location decisions and capital budgeting. The macro economic concepts that are directly or indirectly relevant to managerial decision-making comprise national income analysis, business cycles, monetary policy, fiscal policy, central banking, government finance, economic growth, international trade, balance of payments, free trade protectionism, exchange rates and international monetary system.

The scope of this managerial science is wide and it has close connections with economic theory, decision sciences and accountancy. Traditional economics talks about the theory and methodology while managerial economics applies economic theory and methodology to solve business problems. It uses the tools and techniques of analysis to provide with optimal solutions to business problems.

  • Relationship with economics:

Managerial economics borrows concepts from economics just as engineering does from physics and medicine from biology. The analysis of both micro and macro economic concepts add valuable inputs to the organization. Say, national income forecasting is an important aid to business condition analysis which in turn could be a priceless input for forecasting the demand for specific product groups. The theories of market structure can be analyzed for the purpose of market segmentation.

  • Relationship with decision sciences:

Decision models are created to format the solutions for problem situations and the process utilizes techniques like, optimization, differential calculus and mathematical programming. This also helps to analyze the impact of alternate course of action and evaluate the results obtained form the model.

  • Relationship with accounting:

Accounting data and statements constitute the language of business. The accounting profession considerably influences cost and revenue information and their classification. A manager should therefore be familiar with the generation, interpretation and use of accounting data. Accounting moreover is viewed as a management decision tool and not anymore as a mere practice of bookkeeping. The concepts and practices of accounting can be very well applied to improve the economic scope of a project.

Economics is an interesting subject as it deals with the day-to-day problems of a common man and at the same time is concerned with the economic prosperity of a country as a whole. Its primary focus is on scarce resource allocations among competing ends. Individuals, enterprises and nations face problems of resource allocation. Managerial economics may be viewed as economics applied to problem solving at the level of the firm.

The Global Economic Crisis’ Effects on Business

The global recession prompted due to several causes is a ghastly piece of news for each and every business in every country throughout the world. The tendency adopted in this recession by companies in their pursuit to survive during the chaotic time would be to enter into reviewing the headcount, as well as freezing the budget along with numerous cost reducing measures.

Nonetheless, it is possible that the growth of the company will be stunted in case you continue with the practice or overreact to the whole situation. It is seen with recession hitting the economy many of the internationally based business were enforced to reorganize their operations. This was mainly done by ceasing the functioning of the facilities of production. Millions of working people were required to quit their jobs due to the ongoing crisis. The course of action adopted by the company should be to come in the forefront and re-invent the proceeding of your company and at the same time think of procedures for global recovery.

The crisis is faced by the business is of great magnitude. Businesses around the globe were hit so hard by the economic crisis that several businesses had to seek monetary assistance from the government in order to survive. Several industries were in jeopardy and the others were facing the threat of bankruptcy. Practically for many monetary institutions it was like floor has been swept off under their feet. And as a conclusion the power if acquiring things by the public became feeble. The consumers were once again were very conscious about the budget.

Almost all people were forced to make their decisions carefully when it came to buying something as everyone was clueless about when the recovery from recession will take place. The trends in the market place began to fluctuate along with the demand of various products. Almost every business was affected by this global economic crisis but the companies that were hard hit were the companies having large scale operation along with those who provide their services at high prices. The consumers are now turning to the businesses which render similar services at comparatively cheap prices.

Businesses that can survive this economic recession in a better way are basically small as well as medium scale industries. Nonetheless, it does not suggest that they are not hit by economic crisis. The difference primarily lies in the fact that small as well as medium scale enterprises have comparatively undersized operations and have the ability to maintain the operation with fewer revenues. Such business usually has streamline way of operation which minimizes the total effect of the global crisis for survival.

The time span required by the international economy to recover is long as the magnitude of the crisis is large. Nations will have to strive hard to restructure their economy. What is further in store for us is hazy and the lucid picture is still to emerge. However, it is hoped that businesses will retain their normal position once again.

Improve Your Home With Masonry!

A wall is simply a unique portion of the entire infrastructure of a building. All of the elements, such as color, size, shape, texture, and finishing touches, combine together to create limitless architectural expression. Shade and texture convey a certain depth and character to the structure of a wall and yet the overall appearance should exhibit uniformity.

Masonry is a durable means of construction building using different substances such as brick, marble, stone, concrete blocks, limestone, stucco, tile, granite, and glass blocks. Generally, masonry is both the building activity itself and the materials that are used in the process. Choosing the right type of material and deciding how they should be used in the construction of a house is confusing without the proper knowledge and skills. With the help of the right home builder, everything can easily fall into place.

Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)

CMU’s are the most common type of masonry material utilized in building construction. They are often chosen because of the many benefits they have to offer as a wall material. They are cost-effective, fire-resistant, highly durable, environmentally safe, increase structural integrity, and have a better resale value. It is helpful to understand the different types and sizes of CMU’s available since they are manufactured by several different companies.

Bricks

Historically, bricks are one of the most durable and long-lasting types of masonry units. They are made from blocks of ceramic building material originally made from clay or mud. There are several substances used in making bricks, yet clay is the substance that is most generally used today. The advantages of using clay include: durability, classic beauty, low-maintenance costs, low purchase cost, energy efficiency, greater resale value, impact resistance, fire-proof, and availability in appealing textures. Bricks are used in several different applications; however, they are most commonly used for building a house. To emulate classical bricks, the manufacturer burns the material to provide a rustic appearance.

Stones

Stones have been used in masonry construction for hundreds of years. They can be made from local stones, limestone, granite, and sandstone. The quality of the material depends on its resistance to breakage, water penetration, and the ability to be cut into regular shapes. Stones are durable, maintenance-free, natural-looking, inexpensive, offer a timeless appearance, and come in variety of sizes and colors. Stones make a wonderful, long-lasting wall.

Veneers

Veneers are a construction material made from small pieces of stone or brick that are used for low load-bearing solid masonry. This substance is widely known as a “curtain wall” because of its appearance. Some of the advantages of using veneers include: provide effective drainage; promote insulation; affordability; light-weight; easy installation; and lower labor costs when compared to the installation of other walls. There are two methods of wall construction using this substance: the anchored system and the adhered system.

There are several types of masonry material available. All of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is important to have some basic knowledge about these materials in order to choose the right type of masonry. Each type has its own beauty and unique appearance; however, many factors must be considered before making a final decision. It is a good idea when making a selection to consult with expert home builders who can offer their assistance in choosing the appropriate masonry material for the improvement of a home!

International Trade – Tariffs or Restrictions to Trade

Tariffs are taxes or duties imposed on imports and exports by the government of a country. The idea behind tariffs is to restrict the volume of trade or improve the international terms of trade. Tariffs are imposed to protect infant industries from undue competition with foreign firms, to generate revenue for the country-many countries derive their revenue from import and export duties. Also tariffs are imposed to prevent dumping of goods from foreign countries, hence leading to very low sale prices when compared to home prices.

That’s not all, tariffs help to correct unfavorable balance of payments by discouraging massive imports; prevent dangerous or harmful goods from other countries; encourage the establishment of local industries or enhance the expansion and growth of existing ones so as to provide job opportunities; serve as discriminatory measure against unfriendly countries; imposed on imported goods to enable a country be self sufficient in production of numerous goods and to check consumption pattern as citizens may develop uncontrolled appetite for foreign goods, can be used in most cases to protect certain strategic industries.

Tools or instruments of trade restriction

1. Import duties or tariffs: This is a tax imposed on imported goods to reduce the amount of trade.

2. Foreign exchange control: Trade can be controlled by reducing the foreign exchange available for trade transactions.

3. Devaluation: By lowering the value of a country’s currency vis-a-vis others, importation becomes costly while export becomes cheaper.

4. Embargo: This is the prohibition or outright ban placed on some imported goods

5. Import monopoly: This refers to a situation in which the government of a country takes over the importation of certain goods which are only essential to the country.

6. Import quota: Import quota restricts imports by imposing a limit on the quantity of goods but can be imported at a particular country.

7. Preferential duties: In order to either encourage or discourage the importation of certain goods from certain countries, discriminate duties are charged on these goods.

8. Excise duties reduction: This method helps to reduce the prices of locally made goods so as to enable people to patronize them instead of foreign made goods.

8. Import licence: Import licence is a permit that allows an importer to bring a certain quantity of foreign goods into a country and allows him to purchase the foreign currency required to pay for them.

Tariffs and restrictions are very essential to check-mate international trade to suit the developments and interests of a particular nation.

Avionics Jobs May Be The Smartest Career Choice In Aviation

So you’re possibly considering going down a path in the avionics jobs field? Well, I will tell you straight away that a career in avionics is an extremely smart choice for many reasons, which I will cover in a moment.

But first I want you to consider this:

Rising unemployment. Nationwide foreclosure crisis. Banking failures. Higher taxes.

Four crises in the global economy and as I write this article not one of these issues looks to get any better anytime soon.

Now I don’t want to sound too negative here but I want to be realistic. Jobs are hard enough to come by now, and from the looks of things, it’s only going to get worse. It will be vital for people who are looking for jobs and/or a career to find work that is not only in demand, but will also pay well, have good benefits and have job staying power.

After all, what good is it to bust your tail finding a good job only to have that position disappear in a year, or even sooner than that?

Why A Career In The Avionics Jobs Field Is A Really Good Move

First of all, what exactly is Avionics? For the sake of not getting too technical, a simple definition would be:

‘Avionics, a term derived by combining aviation and electronics, describes all of the electronic navigational, communications, and flight management aids with which airplanes are equipped today.’

A person in the Avionics field is responsible for anything electronic within an aircraft. Some related disciplines in the avionics jobs field would be:

Avionics (or Aviation) Technician: They are responsible for examining and inspecting airplane computer and electronic systems as well as the maintenance of these systems.

Aerospace Engineer: They will test aircraft components as it applies to flight. They will work on navigational systems, research of those and related systems and work extensively on commercial aircraft research.

Electrical Engineer: They test and develop motors, propulsion and like power systems.

Qualifications and pay in this field start where an entry level Avionics Technician will typically start making around $18 an hour and can increase their pay (with experience in the work field) up to $30 an hour.

Avionics engineers can make up to $100,000 a year for top technicians in their field.

Educational requirements start at 3-4 years for a technician, and a 4-year bachelors degree (and sometimes a Masters degree) for an engineer.

Another very important facet in the Avionics Jobs sector is job security. Sure, there are layoffs in aviation, and we read about them all the time. However, the aviation industry is a very fluid one with re-hires occurring literally all the time.

Add in the fact that the avionics and airline industry is one that must continue to operate even in bad times, even if that means that the government must step in to give financial assistance to keep it going.

Yet another important reason to consider aviation jobs is the military component. Aviation is one of the biggest arms of the military and they must have a huge fleet of aircraft which must be maintained to the highest of standards. The military hires new aviation workers constantly.

Limitations Of Management Information Systems

A Management Information System (MIS) is a precious technology that organizations use to measure the efficiency of their business operations as well as performance of their employees. The MIS endows with thorough insight of a company and supports management for making decisive business decisions. Though the MIS provides big number of advantages, but yet it also comes with a few limitations. In this article, we will be focusing on that part of management information system.

Security

This is the very significant area of management information system and it should be well secured. All the important as well as the secret data are there stored in an MIS and which is not supposed to seen by anyone outside the company or anyone who is not authorized to do so. However, it happens sometimes and the important data gets seep out of the organization. It affects the company a lot in business and hence the companies should focus more on this security part. Let’s discuss a few ways how the security of an MIS can be broken.

Hackers: At present, a number of people who have excellent IT knowledge hack this kind of system, maybe for money or for some other purposes.

Ex- employees: In some cases, it has been seen that the account of employees are active in MIS site even after they got out from there. Sometimes, these accounts can be used for some negative purposes.

Virus: While the employees of any organization use this system, they should make sure that their operating device or computer is virus free. If the device has dangerous viruses then these can be a concern for the security of the MIS.

Server

All the data are stored in a particular server, which is also known as the hosting server. The upload time of any server cannot be 100%. It may be 90% or 99%. But, never can be the fullest. So, the site can be down for anytime. Hence, this is another limitation for management information system.

Internet

Same as server, Internet is also a part where MIS has to be dependent. If someone cannot access the net services or the weather is cloudy or maybe the user is in remote or rural area where no network is, then he or she won’t be able to get access of management information system.

So, these are a few limitations that a management information system has to over come in future. However, with having those limitations, yet it helps a lot to the organization, the down line employees and top level managers to take proper decisions for the well of the company.

Is Export Trade Finance Important Today?

For businesses concentrating only on the domestic market, they may miss out on different opportunities the international market offers. If you make a foray into the international market, you may increase your profit as well as protect your business from the negative effects of slowed-down growth. Apart from that, this will allow you to diversify your portfolio.

Among the most crucial ingredients for success in the exportation business is export trade finance. Exporters want to get paid for their products as fast as possible. On the other hand, customers from foreign markets would want to delay payment until they’ve received the products or perhaps resold these. To become competitive, your company must be capable of offering payment terms which are very attractive to possible partners.

Important Factors To Consider When Selecting The Best Financing Option

The amount of time in which the product is financed – This is considered the most important factor to consider. Experts highly emphasized that your choice of financing will be greatly influenced by how long you’ll wait before receiving the payment.

The cost of financing options – If there are several financing options to choose from, you have to look into them meticulously, most especially the interest rates. Be reminded that these costs can greatly influence the products’ price along with your potential profit.

Risks – Transactions are not created equal. There are those that are riskier than others. Experts have emphasized that the riskier the transaction is, the more you’ll find it hard to finance. Economic and political stability can actually compound or increase these risks.

Amount of orders – If you are receiving plenty of orders, your working capital might not be sufficient to meet such increased demand.

Getting Expert Help

You can actually get help from commercial banks with an international department when it comes to dealing with the export trade finance needs of your company. Choose banks that are familiar with the export business. These banks will provide your firm with a wide range of international banking services.

After finding this kind of bank, consider scheduling a visit with the international department for you to know and be aware of the different matters like your export plan, banking facilities, services, and the applicable charges. In case your partner importer fails to pay for the transaction, your business will bear the responsibility of paying for the loan. With the use of instruments like letters of credit as well as credit insurance, you and your chosen bank can greatly benefit from the improvement of the export receivables’ quality.

Understanding Logistics

According to Ghiani (2004), logistics can be defined as the planning and controlling of products and information in an organization. It aims at delivering materials to a given destination for another trying to optimize a particular measure and ensuring satisfaction of a particular set of constraints. These definitions can be simplified to mean the managing of the flow of goods as well as services from the point of manufacture to the point of consumption ensuring that the requirements of the consumer are observed. Activities under logistics include information integration, warehousing, packaging, inventory, security, transportation, as well as handling of materials. Logistics compliments supply chain by add value to place, as well as time utility.

Logistics are identified in different fields due to performance value. These fields include procurement, after sales, production, disposal, as well as distribution fields. This paper will identify the areas where organizations involve logistics as well as the essence of an effective logistics to an organization.

These fields of logistics determine specific activities. Procurement logistics involve make/buy decisions, supplier and other management, as well as market research. Production logistics’ key principle is to connect procurement to distribution logistics. This field of logistics determines the capacities of production under available resources in response to distribution logistics. Distribution logistics deal with delivering of finished goods to the consumer or rather customers. Its components include processing, warehousing, as well as transportation. This logistics is most essential since the time, place as well as quantity of production vary from the time, place, and quantity of consumption.

Today, logistics have been simplified through technological advancements. Complexities which hinder effective logistics management can now be visualized, modeled, optimized and analyzed through particular simulation software. These complexities have necessitated the use of this software. Successful businesses are using this software to case the work of logistics analysis and hence providing effective strategies of managing supply and demand. Problems in logistics majorly occur in organizations that engage in product delivery but they can also occur in firms producing services (Ghiani, 2004). Examples of this include garbage collection, after sales services, as well as mail delivery, among others. Maintenance and operational cost of logistics is another hindrance of its use. Research conducted in the United Stated in 1997 proved that organizations used 862 billion dollars as the total logistics expenditure. It is hence essential for organizations to understand how to minimize logistics cost (Rushton, 2000).

Reliability and sustainability are other factors which affect the efficiency of logistics. Reliable systems as well as equipment’s should be able to perform intended purpose for the identified period under stated conditions through effective logistics. Inefficient logistics will lead to a wrong probability on performance capabilities of systems hence causing massive losses. Reliability will thus project the probability of systems and equipment in an organization (Landford, 2006).

In conclusion, the main issue under logistics is deciding how and when raw goods and finished products will be shipped, transported, and stored. This unlike other operations management is most evident in modern societies. A logistics system comprised of facilities that have been corresponded to the transportation services. Facilities include locations where goods are processed, and they include manufacturing centers, distribution centers, transportation terminals, as well as dumpsites, just to mention a few. The transportation services move goods between the facilities.